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乙型肝炎

2013-01-06

    要害信息
  •    乙型肝炎是一种病毒性流行症,引起肝脏损害,形成急性和缓慢疾病。
  •    病毒的是经过触摸受感染的血液或其他体液而感染,而不是日常触摸。
  •    儿童前期感染后,约25%在成年时会开展成为缓慢感染,并终究死于肝癌或肝硬化。
  •    乙型肝炎病毒对卫生作业者是一个重要的工作损害。
  •    乙型肝炎能够经过安全、有用的疫苗来防备。

 

  现况

  •    我国估量有9300万人现已感染了乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)。

 

  医治

  •    对急性乙型肝炎没有特定的医治。护理的意图是坚持身体舒适和恰当的养分平衡,包含对有吐逆和腹泻症状的患者弥补水份。
  •    缓慢乙型肝炎可运用药物医治,包含运用干扰素和抗病毒药物,这能够协助一些患者。医治花费一年近万元,不是每个患者发病后都能够担负。
  •    肝硬化患者有时要承受肝移植,不是都能够成功。
  •    肝癌简直总是丧命的,并且往往是在人们最具生产力以及承担着家庭职责的年纪发作。

 

  防备

  •    一切婴儿应承受乙型肝炎疫苗:这是防备乙型肝炎的底子。
  •    依据现有的惯例免疫程序,乙肝疫苗需求接种三次。在我国榜首剂的疫苗应在出世后尽早接种(即出世后24小时内)。
  •    完结规则的疫苗接种后,95%以上的婴儿、儿童、轻壮年都可发生维护性抗体。维护期至少继续20年,乃至是毕生。
  •    一切年纪低于18岁的儿童和青少年,曾经未接种疫苗都应接种疫苗。2009-2011年我国政府将为一切15岁以下、既往未接种疫苗的儿童和青少年供给免费接种。
  •    该疫苗在有用性和安全性方面具有非常好的记载。自1982年以来,超越10亿剂乙肝疫苗,现已在全世界运用。在我国疫苗接种已将5岁以下儿童缓慢感染的份额削减到1%以下。
  

Hepatitis B

  Key facts

  · Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver, causing both acute and chronic disease.

  · The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person - not through casual contact.

  · About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood later die from liver cancer or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) caused by the chronic infection.

  · Hepatitis B virus is an important occupational hazard for health workers.

  · Hepatitis B is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine.

  Frequency

  · In China, an estimated 93 million people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV).

  Treatment

  · There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B. Care is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that are lost from vomiting and diarrhea.

  · Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with drugs, including interferon and anti-viral agents, which can help some patients. Treatment can cost dozens of thousands of RMB per year and is not affordable to everyone.

  · Patients with cirrhosis are sometimes given liver transplants, with varying success.

  · Liver cancer is almost always fatal, and often develops in people at an age when they are most productive and have family responsibilities.

  Prevention

  · All infants should receive the hepatitis B vaccine: this is the mainstay of hepatitis B prevention.

  · The vaccine is given in three separate doses, as part of existing routine immunization schedules. In China, the first dose of vaccine should be given as soon as possible after birth (i.e. within 24 hours).

  · The complete vaccine series induces protective antibody levels in more than 95% of infants, children and young adults. Protection lasts at least 20 years and should be lifelong.

  · All children and adolescents younger than 18 years old and not previously vaccinated should receive the vaccine. In China, from 2009 to 2011, the Government will provide the vaccine free of charge for all children under 15 years of age who have not yet been vaccinated.

  · The vaccine has an outstanding record of safety and effectiveness. Since 1982, over one billion doses of hepatitis B vaccine have been used worldwide. In China, vaccination has reduced the rate of chronic infection to less than 1% among immunized children under 5 years age.

  

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